- Active Transport: The pumping of individual ions or other molecules
across a cellular membrane from a region of low concentration to a region of
high concentration. Ions are pumped against the concentration
gradient. Because the ion or molecule is moved in a direction other
than the one in which simple diffusion would take it, the transport process
requires energy, which is usually supplied by ATP.
- Metabolism: The sum of all the reactions that occur in a living
- Energy: The ability to do work. Measured in Joules.
- Catabolism: The metabolic reactions in a cell that result in the
breakdown of complex molecules into simpler compounds. This usually
has a release of energy.
- Anabolism: The opposite of catabolism. It is the constructive
part of metabolism, where complex molecules are built up.
- Aerobic Metabolism: Metabolism that occurs that requires free
- Anaerobic Metabolism: Metabolism that can occur without the
presence of oxygen.
- Enzymes: Agents that perform catalysts in living
organisms. They also help to speed up reactions.